The Neotropical region hosts the greatest diversity of mammals in the world. Western Amazonia, where the State of Acre is located, harbors one of the highest mammalian species diversity in the Neotropics. Mammals are considered important biodiversity components and play a key role in regulating and structuring forest ecosystems. However, there are considerable knowledge gaps regarding species distribution and richness in the Amazon region. This study aims at documenting the medium and large-sized mammal species in Chandless State Park (PEC – Parque Estadual Chandless) giving special attention to those classified as rare or threatened. Four different methods were used in two years of research, 2008 and 2013: linear transect, camera trap, interviews and spoor counts. PEC is highly rich in medium and large-sized mammals in comparison to adjacent conservation units. Fifty-one species were recorded, of which 13 are listed as endangered. Primates, Carnivora and Rodentia were the most species-rich Orders. Because of its high richness and high degree of protection, PEC plays an important role in the protection and conservation of endangered species in a landscape formed by a block of protected areas with different levels of anthropogenic activities.
Given the absence of Lepidoptera inventories in the State of Acre and its scarcity in the Brazilian Amazon forest, this study aimed to list the species of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea present in the Parque Estadual do Chandless and surroundings. The access to the region is complicated and it has no infrastructure for scientific research. During 14 days, the butterflies were collected with entomological nets, traps and Ahrenholz’s technique in different environments in the park and its surroundings. A total of 482 species were identified, none of them present in red lists of endangered species. It is expected a significantly greater number of species after the addition of new collections in other seasons, as the Jacknife 1 estimate does not reach its asymptote, or as compared to inventories in nearby areas that list nearly 1700 species after a greater sampling effort.
To our knowledge, this is the third record of this species and the first for Brazil. It extends its known distribution about 405 km northeast. Absence of additional records of Anolis dissimilis suggests the rarity of this species (Icochea et al., 2001) although, like in Anolis proboscis (Losos et al., 2012), this may be a result of its cryptic morphology and behavior or inadequate search effort.
The genus Osteocephalus (Fitzinger, 1843) is represented by 23 species, of which nine occur in Brazil. Here we exntend the distribution of Osteocephalus castaneicola Moravec, Aparicio, Guerrero-Reinhard, Calderón, Jungfer & Gvoždík, 2009 and provide the first record for Acre state. We include an updated distribution map for the species.